What seems astonishing is that engineering techniques like brain engineering, or Neural tissue engineering can be used to understand, repair, replace, enhance, or otherwise exploit the properties of neural systems and Neuro computing is the study of brain function in terms of the information processing properties of the structures that make up the nervous system.
Increase in technology and our understanding of the nervous system has lead to the development of drugs and medicines in the two main branches i.e. molecular and behavioral beyond our imagination that has continued to rise with an increase in drug specificity and sensitivity.
Neurotoxicology deals with the toxicity of the CNS, affecting the brain and destructs the nerve tissues. Examples of toxic substances include Conotoxin, Chlorotoxin, Tetrodotoxin, causes neurotoxicity & directly affecting the brain and related functions. Neurotoxicity can also occur due to some drug therapies, organ transplant or exposures to heavy metal.
Neurorehabilitation is a medical method that targets in recovery from an injury in the nervous system, and to reduce the complications to avoid functional alterations resulting from it. Rehabilitation is used generally in physiotherapy processes. Conditions that are treated through Neurorehabilitation, includes Stroke, Parkinson’s Disease, Trauma, Multiple Sclerosis.
It is admirable to discuss about clinical neuroscience as this focuses on the fundamental mechanisms of diseases and disorders of the brain and central nervous system and seeks to develop new ways of diagnosing such anarchy, leading to the development of novel medication. As per the estimates by the World Health Organization, neural disorders affect over 1 billion people worldwide, constitute 12% of the burden of disease globally, and cause 14% of global annihilation.
Study of brain and spinal cord impairment which may include life threatening and dangerous tumors, especially of brain in known as Neuro Oncology. Cancer spreads the nervous system by metastasis or could directly invade the nervous system. Brain tumors treatments include radiotherapy, chemotherapy and neurosurgical interventions. Brain metastasis is of greater challenge for the researchers dealing in this field.
Neuropathic pain (neuralgia) is a pain that comes from problems with signals from the nerves. It was mainly classified into peripheral neuropathic pain and central neuropathic pain which includes spinal cord injury and central disorders. Pain is a significant public health problem that costs society at least 560-635 billion annually. Women were more likely to experience pain in comparison to men. According to the recent survey, Chronic Pain affects 47% of USA adults.
Neurosurgery is a surgery that generally involves either operative or non-operative surgery to rehabilitate the functions related to the CNS which involves brain and spinal cord. Non-operative surgery includes prevention, diagnosis and rehabilitation. Neurological surgery is only used to reduce the pain that occurs in brain due to some neurological disorders or some pathological process that may have resulted due to differences in functioning of the CNS. Pediatric neurosurgery deals in treating the children’s nervous system problem such as head and spine deformations.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the brain which causes impairment of memory and other cognitive abilities that interferes with an individual’s daily activities. The most common form of dementia is the Alzheimer’s disease which accounts for about 60-80% of all dementia cases. Alzheimer’s disease is not a part of normal aging and the exact cause of the disease is unknown. It most often affects people over 65 years of age and older. The disease starts slowly and then the symptom worsens progressively over time.
Genes affect the wiring and workings of the brain, which is the authority of all our rides. It is ultimately and solely the genes that give rise to a particular type of protein that may be beneficial or harmful that reflects the need of research in this particular field. 6000 and more emerging genetic disorders account for a significant portion of human disease and conditions. Nearly 4% of the approximately 4 million babies born each year have a genetic disease or major birth defect. Around 15,000 Americans are diagnosed to have Huntington’s disease (HD).
Neuromuscular disorders are known to affect the nerves that control the voluntary muscles. One of the causes is the genetic and immune system disorder. More than a million people in the United States are affected by some form of neuromuscular diseases, and about 40% of them are under age18. Diagnosis includes a multi-step process like muscle biopsy, NCV test, biochemical, genetic test etc.
Cognitive neuroscience involves the study of several biological processes which includes aspects of cognition, focusing on the brain neural networks that are further involved in the various mental processes. Cognitive disorders further affect the problem solving, perception, learning, and memory of a person.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive neuromuscular disorder of the Central Nervous System (CNS). Parkinson’s disease occurs when nerve cells in the brain do not produce enough of a neurotransmitter called dopamine. Parkinson's disease particularly affects neurons in the area of the brain called the substantia nigra. Parkinson’s disease symptoms are collectively known as “Parkinsonism” or “Parkinsonian syndrome” which includes muscle rigidity, tremors, and changes in speech and gait.
Neuro cardiology involves study of interaction between heart and brain which deals with the effect of stress on the heart. The nervous system regulates the cardiovascular system. A perfect balance in hormone levels, life style and the environmental conditions play a very important role in maintaining a good relation between heart and brain.
Neuroimmunology is a field of neuroscience, combining immune system and the nervous system. The immune system administer defence against these organisms, inefficiency of the same results in Infections. The condition is much worse in developing countries; it has been a significant health problem in Australia. Some 350,000 to 500,000 patients suffer from multiple sclerosis (MS) in the United States.
Stem cell is an undifferentiated cell that is capable to give rise to a new cell. Research has shown that these cells are capable in the treatment of Neurological Disorders such as Parkinson, Alzheimer disease, Battens disease and many other neurological disorders. They can also be used for Spinal cord injury.
Neurological Nursing is a very challenging nursing specialty dealing with assessment, nursing diagnosis, and management of many neurological disorders in which nurses provide patient care. A Neuroscience nurse assists patients with brain and nervous system disorders which includes trauma, brain injuries, stroke, seizures, tumors, headaches, infections, and aneurysms, as well as a host of other neurological complexities.
Neurochemistry is the study of Neurochemicals (neurotransmitters, neuropeptides) that have a direct impact on the functioning of the neuron. It also include the different chemical processes that occur in the brain.
1. Neurotransmission is signal transmission which involves neurotransmitters which are released by neuron, such as aspartate, nitric oxide, glutamate, and dopamine which then bind to a target receptor present on another neuron. Neuron helps in the transmission of information. Neurotransmitters can either lead to excitation or inhibition of neurons. Some of the excitatory neurotransmitters are Norepinephrine and Acetylcholine. Whereas inhibitory neurotransmitters include Gamma Aminobutyric acid, Dopamine and Serotonin.